It’s a bit of a cliche, but first keep in mind a few important things: Every generation has dozens of SKUs labeled i7. Today, for the most direct comparison, we talk about Hedt I7s and Xeon.
HEDT i7 is a boxed-out XEMON, and its performance is different from that of the boxed-out XEMON chip. How much core work, how much cache work, how stable it is at a given speed or at a given voltage…… All of this worked. (I’ll continue to refer to Jacob VanWagoner’s advice on how Intel designs and manufactures so many CPUs. To learn more about the sorting process.)
The main features that Hedt chips are missing from Xeon are:
The ability to interact with multiple CPUs in the system.
Low-power variants (although there is a low-power i7 outside the HEDT stack).
Availability of more kernels and more caches in the product stack
Key features you found in Xeons that Hedt chips don’t have:
Unlock the core frequency multiplier (all HEDT i7 can overclock.)
Note that we see support for Xeon appearing:
Neither of these things is available in HEDT i7s (although again, they are available in i7s outside HEDT).
That last point brings me back to the beginning… Both Xeon and i7 processors of the same generation have dozens of SKUs. While Xeon shares a lot with Hedt i7, there are exceptions to the rule. If you try to make a broad claim that covers all brands i7 and all brand power brands, you’ll quickly find that there are few broad claims that can be made without tripping over various exceptions